Monday, May 27, 2013

Perbedaan antara Past Tense dengan Present Tense


Perbedaan antara  Past Tense dengan Present Tense

Inti dari Past Tense adalah untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang telah “Lampau”. Semua itu sudah “Past. Berikut adalah rumus yang digunakan dalam past tense
Rumus Past Tense:
Positif: S + V2
Negatif: S + did not + V1
Tanya: Did + S + V1
Contoh Kalimat Past Tense:
The earth rotated around the sun
Kata kerjanya bentuk kedua “rotated”, ini tergolong kata kerja beraturan, tinggal tambahkan ED di belakang rotate.



Contoh lagi:
Kita akan pakai kata kerja bentuk 1-2-3 berikut:
see – saw – seen (melihat)
buy – bought- bought (membeli)
go – went – gone (pergi)
-I saw her standing there (Saya lihat dia berdiri disana).
-My Father bought this car last year
-They went to Tokyo last month
-She went home two minutes ago

Contoh lainnya adalah :

• I played tennis with some guys from work yesterday.
• We stayed in Shanghai for five days.

Kata kerja simple past tense (kata kerja bentuk ke-2) yang reguler dibentuk dengan menambahkan “-ed” pada akhiran kata kerja.
Semua contoh kalimat tersebut itu sudah terjadi

Kegunaan
Simple past tense digunakan untuk menyatakan sebuah tindakan yang telah selesai dilakukan. Contoh:
• We watched a movie at the weekend (kami menonton film di akhir pekan)
• She arrived on Thursday (dia tiba hari Kamis)


Waktu spesifik harus dinyatakan atau diisyaratkan. Contoh:
• I walked to work this morning - Dalam kalimat ini waktunya disebutkan
• I walked to work - Dalam kalimat ini waktu tidak disebutkan, tetapi konteks

kalimatnya dapat membuat kita memahami waktu yang dimaksud (yakni waktu lampau).
Kalimat Negatif Past Tense
Sesuai rumusnya: S + did + not + V1
V1 -V2 – V3: Do – Did – Done

Jadi kita pakai “Did”. Karena negatif maka tambah “Not”. Jadi Did Not
Kalimat positif tadi, kita jadikan negatif:
-I saw her standing there
Menjadi: I did not see her standing there
Lihatlah saw jadi see lagi. See-saw-seen kan bentuk kata kerjanya?
Positif: My Father bought this car last year
Negatif: My Father did not BUY this car last year
Kalimat negatif simple past tense dibuat dengan did dan not. Did adalah bentuk lampau dari kata kerja to do. Did dan not sering disingkat menjadi didn’t. Contoh lainnya:
- I arrived in London on Monday -> I didn’t arrive on Sunday.
- They stayed at the Vivaldi Hotel -> They didn’t stay at the Carlton Hotel.
Karena “did” merupakan bentuk lampau, maka kata kerja utama tidak mengalami perubahan. Contoh:
• We didn’t live in Italy. Did adalah bentuk lampau sehingga live tidak dirubah menjadi bentuk lampau.
• We didn’t lived in Italy. Kalimat ini tidak benar.
Kalimat Tanya Past Tense
Pertanyaan dibuat dengan menempatkan did sebelum subjek. Contoh:
• You lived in Japan -> Did you live in Japan?
• They stayed at the Vivaldi Hotel -> Did they stay at the Vivaldi Hotel?
Kata kerja utama juga tidak berubah (tidak diganti menjadi bentuk lampau), contoh:
- You lived in Japan -> Did you lived in Japan? (tidak benar)
- You lived in Japan -> Did you live in Japan? (benar)
Contoh lainnya :
Positif: My Father bought this car last year
Tanya: Did My Father BUY this car last year
Boleh saja Anda tambahkan dengan Where, When, Why dan sebagainya seperti ini:
-When did my father buy this car?
-Why did they go to tokyo?
Kata kerja tidak beraturan
Ada banyak kata kerja simple past tense yang tidak beraturan (irregular verbs) dalam bahasa Inggris, yakni tidak ditambahkan -ed. Berikut beberapa kata kerja tidak beraturan yang paling umum.

be - was/were
become - became
begin - began
break - broke
bring - brought
build - built
buy - bought
catch - caught
choose - chose
come - came
do - did
draw -drea
eat - ate
feel - felt
fight - fought
find - found
fly - flew
forget - forgot
get - got
give - gave
go - went
have - had
hear - heard
hit - hit
know - knew
learn - learnt/learned
leave - left
lose - lost make - made
meet - met
pay - paid
read - read
ride - rode
run - run
say - said
sell - sold
send - sent
shut - shut
sing - sang
sit - sat
sleep - slept
smell - smelt/smelled
speak - spoke
stand - stood
swim - swam
take - took
teach - taught
tell - told
think - thought
understand - understood
wear - wore
win - won
write - wrote

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Present perfect tense digunakan untuk menyatakan tindakan atau situasi yang pernah atau sudah terjadi. Kapan terjadinya tindakan atau situasi itu tidak terlalu penting.

Pola kalimat present perfect tense.

Pola I
(+) S + have/has + V3
(-) S + have/has + not + V3
(?) Have/has + S + V3

Pola II
(+) S + have/has + been + Adj/Adv/N
(-) S + have/has + not + been + Adj/Adv/N
(?) Have/has + S + been + Adj/Adv/N

Contoh kalimat pola I:
I have finished my work.
She has not eaten lunch.
Have you seen that movie?

Contoh kalimat pola II:
She has been sick for two days.
They have not been busy for one day.
Have you been here for two hours?


Catatan

Has dipakai jika subjek adalah orang ketiga tunggal (he, she, it).

Dalam percakapan (present perfect tense) biasanya subject dan auxiliary verb mengalami penyingkatan (contraction). Dan kadang-kadang dalam bentuk tulisan, penyingkatan ini juga dipakai.
I’ve finished my work.
She’s been sick for two days.

Singkatan ‘s setelah subjek orang ketiga dapat berarti auxiliary verbs (kata kerja bantu) have atau be. “It’s eaten” dapat berarti:
It has eaten. [present perfect tense, active voice]
It is eaten. [present tense, passive voice]
Perhatikan konteksnya, maka akan jelas auxiliary verbs yang mana yang dipakai.

Present perfect tense lebih sering dipakai di Inggris daripada di Amerika yang lebih sering menggunakan bentuk past tense.
Have you had lunch? (Inggris)
Did you have lunch? (Amerika)

1. Kita menggunakan present perfect continuous tense untuk membicarakan tentang situasi-situasi yang telah dimulai di masa lampau dan masih sedang berlangsung, atau baru saja selesai dan mempengaruhi masa sekarang (present). Contoh:
• It has been rining the whole day. (maksud: masih sementara hujan)
• Anne is out of breath. She has been running. (maksud: ia tidak sedang berlari sekarang, tetapi dia kehabisan nafas)
2. Kita bisa menggunakan present perfect continuous tense untuk berbicara tentang tindakan-tindakan yang berulang sampai sekarang. Contoh:
• I have been playing football since I was twelve. (maksud: selalu bermain sepakbola dari dulu hingg sekarang).
3. Kita sering menggunakan present perfect continuous tense dengan kata “lately” atau “recently” dalam kalimat untuk memperkuat makna. Keduanya berarti “pada beberapa hari atau pekan belakangan”. Contoh:
• We have been working a lot recently (maksud: akhir-akhir ini kami selalu bekerja)
• Our sons has been watching too much television lately (maksud: putra kami banyak menonton televisi belakangan ini).


ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERB CHART
base form past simple
past participle
arise - a rose - arisen
awake - awoke - awoken
be - was/were been
bear - bore - born(e)
beat - beat - beaten
become- became - become
begin - began - begun
bend - bent - bent
bet - bet - bet
bind - bound - bound
bite - bit - bitten
bleed - bled - bled
blow - blew - blown
break - broke - broken
breed - bred - bred
bring - brought- brought
broadcast - broadcast - broadcast
build - built - built
burn - burnt/burned - burnt/burned
burst - burst - burst
buy - bought- bought
can - could -…… (been able)
catch - caught- caught
choose - chose - chosen
cling - clung - clung
come - came - come
cost - cost - cost
creep - crept - crept
cut - cut - cut
deal - dealt - dealt
dig - dug - dug
do - did - done
draw - drew - drawn
dream - dreamt/dreamed - dreamt/dreamed
drink - drank - drunk
drive - drove - driven
eat - ate - eaten
fall - fell - fallen
feed - fed - fed
feel - felt - felt
fight - fought- fought
find - found - found
fly - flew - flown
forbid - forbade - forbidden
forget - forgot - forgotten
forgive- forgave - forgiven
freeze - froze - frozen
get - got - got
give - gave - given
go - went - gone
grind - ground - ground
grow - grew - grown
hang - hung - hung
have - had - had
hear - heard - heard
hide - hid - hidden
hit - hit - hit
hold - held - held
hurt - hurt - hurt
keep - kept - kept
kneel - knelt - knelt
know - knew - known
lay - blaid - laid
lead - led - led
lean - leant/leaned - leant/leaned
learn - learnt/learned -learnt/learned
leave - left - left
lent - lent - lent
lie - lay - lain
lie - lied - lied
light - lit/lighted - lit/lighted
lose - lost - lost
make - made - made
may - might ……
mean - meant - meant
meet - met - met
mow - mowed - mown/mowed
must - had to ……
overtake - overtook - overtaken
pay - paid - paid
put - put - put
read - read - read
ride - rode - ridden
ring - rang - rung
rise - rose - risen
run - ran - run
saw - sawed - sawn/sawed
say - said - said
see - saw - seen
sell - sold - sold
send - sent - sent
set - set - set
sew - sewed - sewn/sewed
shake - shook - shaken
shall - should - ……
shed - shed - shed
shine - shone - shone
shoot - shot - shot
show - showed - shown
shrink - shrank - shrunk
shut - shut - shut
sing - sang - sung
sink - sank - sunk
sit - sat - sat
sleep - slept - slept
slide - slid - slid
smell - smelt - smelt
sow - sowed - sown/sowed
speak - spoke - spoken
spell - spelt/spelled - spelt/spelled
spend - spent - spent
spill - spilt/spilled - spilt/spilled
spit - spat - spat
spread - spread - spread
stand - stood - stood
steal - stole - stolen
stick - stuck - stuck
sting - stung - stung
stink - stank - stunk
strike - struck - struck
swear - swore - sworn
sweep - swept - swept
swell - swelled - swollen/swelled
swim - swam - swum
swing - swung - swung
take - took - taken
teach - taught - taught
tear - tore - torn
tell - told - told
think - thought - thought
throw - threw - thrown
understand - understood - understood
wake - woke - woken
wear - wore - worn
weep - wept - wept
will - would ……
win - won - won
wind - wound - wound
write - wrote - written

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